Understanding the Exposure Triangle.
If you want to take better pictures with your camera, you need to understand the exposure triangle. The exposure triangle is a concept that explains how three factors affect the brightness and quality of your photos: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. These factors are interrelated and you need to balance them to get the right exposure for your scene.
The aperture is the opening in your lens that lets light in. It is measured in f-stops, such as f/2.8, f/4, f/8, etc. The smaller the f-number, the larger the aperture and the more light it lets in. Aperture also affects the depth of field of your photo, which is how much of your scene is in focus. A large aperture (small f-number) creates a shallow depth of field, meaning only a small part of your scene is in focus and the rest is blurred. A small aperture (large f-number) creates a large depth of field, meaning more of your scene is in focus.
Shutter speed is how long your camera's shutter stays open to expose the sensor to light. It is measured in seconds or fractions of a second, such as 1/60, 1/125, 1/500, etc. The faster the shutter speed, the less light it lets in and the more it freezes motion. The slower the shutter speed, the more light it lets in and the more it blurs motion.
ISO is how sensitive your camera's sensor is to light. It is measured in numbers, such as 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. The higher the ISO number, the more sensitive the sensor and the brighter the image. However, a higher ISO also introduces more noise or grain to your image, which reduces its quality.
The exposure triangle shows how these three factors affect each other and how you can adjust them to get the desired exposure for your photo. For example, if you want to use a large aperture to create a shallow depth of field, you need to use a faster shutter speed and/or a lower ISO to avoid overexposing your image. Conversely, if you want to use a slow shutter speed to capture motion blur, you need to use a smaller aperture and/or a lower ISO to avoid underexposing your image.
There is no one right way to set your exposure triangle, as it depends on your creative vision and the lighting conditions of your scene. However, by understanding how these factors work together, you can make better decisions and take better pictures with your camera.